Underlying everything in ASP.NET MVC, Azure, and a console application is Windows itself. In this section we’ll learn about memory and monitoring on the Windows side of our applications. First, you’ll learn about virtual memory and what it means along with a nice tool for seeing the virtual address space. You’ll also learn about page faults, the true underlying reason for all performance problems on a computer. The cost of a page fault is huge so don’t be surprised when you gasp when learning the real cost. To monitor on Windows we have a built in tool called the Performance Monitor (Perfmon) which we can use to look at all the performance counters on a process or across the system. Learn how to use this tool to monitor a process for the most important memory performance counters of all.